#HowItWorks

We've designed our E-Vaccine to teach the body's own immunity how it can destroy the virus permanently.

Read the Whitepaper

How our HIV Vaccine Works

HIV is difficult to treat and vaccinate against because it is constantly mutating, changing faster than the antibodies our body produces to fight it.

Dr. Sudhir Paul has invented an E-Vaccine that allows the immune system to attack a mostly unchangeable and thus vulnerable part of HIV.

Because of its electronically activated structure, the E-Vaccine programs the body’s immune cells to produce new types of antibodies: irreversible antibodies that bind HIV permanently, and catalytic antibodies – or abzymes – that destroy the virus coat.
Both irreversible antibodies and abzymes attack the mostly immutable part of the virus, thus prevent HIV from infecting white blood cells and replicating further.
Both irreversible antibodies and abzymes improve immune protection, an irreversible antibody because of its virtually 'infinite' binding affinity for the target, and an abzyme because it is cycled again and again to break many targets.
What's an ABZYME? What's an irreversible antibody?

An abzyme is an antibody produced by the body's immune cells that catalyzes target protein destruction. An irreversible antibody, a molecular cousin of the abzyme, is a 'very sticky' antibody that does not release the target after binding the target.

The Benefits of a Vaccine

Vaccination is the best, low-cost way to accomplish eradication of infectious microbes. Vaccines have been used since the 18th century to save millions and millions of lives.

Our E-Vaccine activates the body’s own immune healing and preventative powers. It has the potential to prevent and cure HIV/AIDS, alone or in combination with available HIV drugs.


The Inventor

Sudhir Paul, Ph.D.

Dr. Paul's group has received about $25 million in NIH basic research funding from the National Institutes of Health, and has a distinguished research career in which he published over 175 science journal articles and books. He is currently a professor at UTHealth. He started Covalent Bioscience, our for profit start-up partner, with the hope of applying his E-vaccine and abzyme technologies for low-cost, more effective disease treatment, including disease treatment in the economically disadvantaged segments of society.


Chief FDA Regulatory Specialist

Ellen Cooper, M.D., MPH

Dr. Ellen Cooper was the first Director of the Antiviral Drugs Division for the FDA as well as the former Vice President of the Department of Clinical and Regulatory Affairs at ARF. She is instrumental in moving our E-Vaccine towards a Phase I Human Trial.

Our Science Team

 

Our Board of Directors

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Selected Publications Documenting the Abzyme and E-vaccine Technologies

Full length articles

  1. Paul, S., Volle, D.J., Beach, C.M., Johnson, D.R., Powell, M.J., and Massey, R.J. Catalytic hydrolysis of vasoactive intestinal peptide by human autoantibody. Science. 244:1158-1162, 1989.
  2. Paul, S. A new effector mechanism for antibodies: Catalytic cleavage of peptide bonds. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quantit Biol. 54:283-286, 1989.
  3. Paul, S., Volle, D.J., Powell, M.J., and Massey, R.J. Site specificity of a catalytic vasoactive intestinal peptide antibody: An inhibitory vasoactive intestinal peptide subsequence distant from the scissile peptide bond. J Biol Chem. 265:11910-11913, 1990.
  4. Paul, S., Volle, D.J., and Sun, M. Affinity chromatography of catalytic autoantibody to vasoactive intestinal peptide. J Immunol. 145:1196-1199, 1990.
  5. Paul, S., Johnson, D.J., and Massey, R.J. Binding and multiple hydrolytic sites in epitopes recognized by catalytic anti-peptide antibodies. CIBA Symp. 159:156-173, 1991.
  6. Paul, S., Sun, M., Mody, B., Eklund, S.H., Beach, C.M., Massey, R.J., and Hamel, F. Cleavage of vasoactive intestinal peptide at multiple sites by autoantibodies. J Biol Chem. 266:16128-16134, 1991.
  7. Sun, M., Mody, B., Eklund, S.H., and Paul, S. Vasoactive intestinal peptide hydrolysis by antibody light chains. J Biol Chem. 266:15571-15574, 1991.
  8. Paul, S., Sun, M., Mody, R., Tewary, H.K., Gao, Q.-S., Massey, R.J., and Tramontano, A. Catalysis by antibodies to VIP. Biomed Res. 13:31-36, 1992.
  9. Paul, S., Sun, M., Mody, R., Tewary, H.K., Stemmer, P., Massey, R.J., Gianferrara, T., Mehrotra, S., Dreyer, T., Meldal, M., and Tramontano, A. Peptidolytic monoclonal antibody elicited by a neuropeptide. J Biol Chem. 267:13142-13145, 1992.
  10. Paul, S., and Ebadi, M. Vasoactive intestinal peptide: Its interactions with calmodulin and catalytic antibodies. Neurochem Int. (Invited Review) 23:197-214, 1993.
  11. Paul, S., Gabibov, A., and Massey, R. Catalytic antibodies. (Editorial) Mol Biotechnol. 1:109-111, 1994.
  12. Sun, M., Li, L., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Antigen recognition by an antibody light chain. J Biol Chem. 269:734-738, 1994.
  13. Tyutyulkova, S., and Paul, S. Selection of functional human immunoglobulin light chains from a phage display library. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 47:191-198, 1994.
  14. Paul, S. Catalytic activity of anti-ground state antibodies, antibody subunits and human autoantibodies. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 47:241-255, 1994.
  15. Mody, R.K., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Spontaneous hydrolysis of vasoactive intestinal peptide in neutral aqueous solution. Int J Pept Prot Res. 44:441-447, 1994.
  16. Sun, M., Gao, Q.-S., Li, L., and Paul, S. Proteolytic activity of an antibody light chain. J Immunol. 153:5121-5126, 1994.
  17. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., Tyutyulkova, S., Webster, D., Rees, A., Tramontano, A., Massey, R., and Paul, S. Molecular cloning of a proteolytic antibody light chain. J Biol Chem. 269:32389-32393, 1994.
  18. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., Tyutyulkova, S., Webster, D., Rees, A., Tramontano, A., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. Substrate driven formation of a proteolytic antibody light chain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 764:562-569, 1995.
  19. Li, L., Paul, S., Tyutyulkova, S., Kazatchkine, M., and Kaveri, S. Catalytic activity of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. J Immunol. 154:3328-3332, 1995.
  20. Paul, S., Gao, Q.-S., Huang, H., Sun, M., Thompson, A., Rennard, S., and Landers, D. Catalytic autoantibodies to vasoactive intestinal peptide. Chest. 107:125S-126S, 1995.
  21. Paul, S., Li, L., Kalaga, R., Wilkins-Stevens, P., Stevens, F.J., and Solomon, A. Natural catalytic antibodies: Peptide hydrolyzing activities of Bence Jones proteins and VL fragment. J Biol Chem. 270:15257-15261, 1995.
  22. Huang, H., Fichter, B., Dannenbring, R., and Paul, S. Rapid purification of recombinant antibody clones for catalytic activity. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:403-408, 1995.
  23. Huang, H., and Paul, S. Assay of radiolabeled VIP binding and hydrolysis by antibodies. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:409-416, 1995.
  24. Tyutyulkova, S., and Paul, S. Purification of antibody light chains by metal affinity and protein L chromatography. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:395-402, 1995.
  25. Tyutyulkova, S., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Selection of human immunoglobulin light chains from a phage display library. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:377-394, 1995.
  26. Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Site-directed mutagenesis of antibody variable regions. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:319-328, 1995.
  27. Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Molecular cloning of anti-ground state proteolytic antibody fragments. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:281-296, 1995.
  28. Sun, M., and Paul, S. Purification of reduced and alkylated antibody subunits. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:111-122, 1995.
  29. Li, L., Kalaga, R., and Paul, S. Methods of measuring thyroglobulin and peptide-methylcoumarinamide hydrolysis by autoantibodies. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Ed., Paul, S. In: Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:417-422, 1995.
  30. Kalaga, R., Li, L., O’Dell, J., and Paul, S. Unexpected presence of polyreactive catalytic antibodies in IgG from unimmunized donors and decreased levels in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 155:2695-2702, 1995.
  31. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., Rees, A., and Paul, S. Site-directed mutagenesis of proteolytic antibody light chain. J Mol Biol. 253:658-664, 1995.
  32. Li, L., Kaveri, S., Tyutyulkova, S., Kazatchkine, M., and Paul, S. Catalytic activity of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 764:570-572, 1995.
  33. Sun, M., Li, L., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Localization of protease activity in antibody subunits. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 764:573-575, 1995.
  34. Samejima, M., Ebadi, M., and Paul, S. Pineal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), its receptor, its catalytic antibody, and their roles in immune mechanism. Rec Res Biol. 1:1-4, 1996.
  35. Tyutyulkova, S., Gao, Q.-S., Thompson, A., Rennard, S., and Paul, S. Efficient vasoactive intestinal polypeptide hydrolyzing autoantibody light chains selected by phage display. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1316:217-223, 1996.
  36. Paul, S. Natural catalytic antibodies. Mol Biotechnol. 5:197-207, 1996.
  37. Paul, S. Proteolytic antibodies. Isr J Chem. 36:207-214, 1996.
  38. Li, L., Sun, M., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Low level formation of potent catalytic IgG fragments mediated by disulfide bond instability. Mol Immunol. 33:593-600, 1996.
  39. Paul, S. Relevance of catalytic anti-VIP antibodies to the airway. In Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory peptides. Lung Biology in Health and Disease Series, Sami Said, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York). Chapter 19, pp 441-457, 1997.
  40. Kohler, H., Paul, S., and Marchalonis, J. Multifunctional variable domains. The Immunologist. 5:98-103, 1997.
  41. Sun, M., Gao, Q.-S., Kirnarskiy, L., Rees, A., and Paul, S. Cleavage specificity of a proteolytic antibody light chain and effects of the heavy chain variable domain. J Mol Biol. 271:374-385, 1997.
  42. Paul, S., Li, L., Kalaga, R., O’Dell, J., Dannenbring, Jr, R.E., Swindells, S., Hinrichs, S., Caturegli, P., and Rose, N. Characterization of thyroglobulin-directed and polyreactive catalytic antibodies in autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 159:1530-1536, 1997.
  43. Sun, M., and Paul, S. Altered cleavage site preference of a proteolytic antibody light chain induced by denaturation. FEBS Lett. 407:289-290, 1997.
  44. Paul, S. VIPase. In Handbook of proteolytic enzymes. Barrett A, Woessner F, Rawlings N., Eds. (Academic Press, London, England) pp 533-535, 1998.
  45. Paul, S. Mechanism and functional role of antibody catalysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 75:13-24, 1998.
  46. Paul, S. Autoantibody catalysis: No longer hostage to Occam’s razor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 865:246-254 1998.
  47. Gololobov, G., Noda, Y., Sherman, S., Rubinstein, I., Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J., and Paul, S. Stabilization of vasoactive intestinal peptide by lipids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 285:753-758, 1998.
  48. Kohler, H., and Paul, S. Superantibodies: New players in innate and adaptive immunity. Immunol Today. 19:221-227, 1998.
  49. Paul, S., and Tramontano, A. Antibody catalysis – A super activity. The Immunologist. 7:163-168, 1999.
  50. Gololobov, G., Sun, M., and Paul, S. Innate antibody catalysis. Mol Immunol. 36:1215-1222, 1999.
  51. Paul, S. Autoantibody catalysis. In Autoimmune Reactions. Ed., Paul S. (Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). Chapter 15, pp. 221-234, 1999.
  52. Kolesnikov, A.V., Kozyr, A.V., Alexandrova, E.S., Koralewski, F., Demin, A.V., Titov, M.I., Avalle, B., Tramontano, A., Paul, S., Thomas, D., Gabibov, A.G., and Friboulet, A. Enzyme mimicry by the anti-idiotypic antibody approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:13526-13531, 2000.
  53. Thiagarajan, P., Dannenbring, R., Matsuura, K., Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. A monoclonal antibody light chain with prothrombinase activity. Biochemistry. 39:6459-6465, 2000.
  54. Thiagarajan, P., and Paul, S. Prothrombin cleaving antibody light chains. Chemical Immunology: Catalytic Antibodies (S. Karger AG, Basel) Ed., S. Paul. pp. 115-129, 2000.
  55. Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Proteolytic antibodies: Origins, selection and induction. Chemical Immunology: Catalytic Antibodies (S. Karger AG, Basel) Ed., S. Paul. pp 1-17, 2000.
  56. Li, L., Kalaga, R., and Paul, S. Proteolytic components of serum IgG preparations. Clin Exp Immunol. 120:261-266, 2000.
  57. Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Nucleophilic antibodies. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 83:221-232, 2000.
  58. Tramontano, A., Ivanov, B., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Inhibition and labeling of enzymes and abzymes by phosphonate esters. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 83:233-243, 2000.
  59. Paul, S., Kalaga, R., Gololobov, G., and Brenneman, D. Natural catalytic immunity is not restricted to autoantigenic substrates: Identification of a human immunodeficiency virus gp120 cleaving antibody light chain. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 83:71-84, 2000.
  60. Paul, S., Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., Zhou, Y.-X, Taguchi, H., Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., and George, S. Phosphonate ester probes for proteolytic antibodies. J Biol Chem. 276: 28314-28320, 2001.
  61. Alexandrova, E.S., Koralewski, F., Titov, M.I., Demin, A.V., Ignatova, A.N., Kozyr, A.V., Kolesnikov, A.V., Tramontano, A., Paul, S., Thomas, D., Gabibov, A.G., and Friboulet, A. Catalysis of esterolytic reactions by the anti-idiotypic antibody against human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 377:75-78, 2001.
  62. Taguchi, H., Nishiyama, Y., Burr, G., Karle, S., and Paul, S. Synthesis of a covalently reactive antigen analog derived from a conserved sequence of HIV-1 gp120. Peptides–The wave of the future. Proceedings of the 2nd International and 17th American Peptide Symposium, American Peptide Society, San Diego, 2002. Eds. Richard A. Houghten and Michal Lebl, pp 1033-1034, 2001.
  63. Berisha, H.I., Bratut, M., Bangale, Y., Colasurdo, G., Paul, S., and Said, S.I. New evidence for transmitter role of VIP in the airways: Impaired airway relaxation by a catalytic antibody to VIP. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 15:121-127, 2002.
  64. Aleksandrova, E.S., Koralevski, F., Titov, M.I., Demin, A.V., Kozyr, A.V., Kolesnikov, A.V., Tramontano, A., Paul, S., Thomas, D., Gabibov, A.G., Gnuchev, N.V., and Friboulet, A. A structure-activity study of a catalytic antiidiotypic antibody to the human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Khim.28:118-125, 2002.
  65. Zhou, Y.-X., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Prospects for immunotherapeutic proteolytic antibodies. J Immunol Methods. 269:257-268, 2002.
  66. Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Luo, J., Zhou, Y.-Z., Burr, G., Karle, S., and Paul, S. Covalent reactivity of a phosphonate monophenyl ester with serine proteinases: An overlooked feature of oxyanionic transition state analogs. Arch Biochem Biophys. 402:281–288, 2002.
  67. Taguchi, H., Burr, G., Karle, S., Planque, S., Zhou, Y.-X., Paul, S., and Nishiyama, Y. A mechanism-based probe for gp120-hydrolyzing antibodies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 12:3167–3170, 2002.
  68. Bangale, Y., Cavill, D., Gordon, T., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Bhatia, G., Nishiyama, Y., Arnett, F., and Paul, S. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding autoantibodies in autoimmune humans and mice. Peptides. 23:2251-2257, 2002.
  69. Voice, J.K., Grinninger, C., Kong, Y., Bangale, Y., Paul, S., and Goetzl, E.J. Roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the expression of different immune phenotypes by wild-type mice and T cell-targeted type II VIP receptor transgenic mice. J Immunol. 170:308-314, 2003.
  70. Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Zhou, Y.-X., Luo, J., Planque, S., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Carrier-dependent specificity of Abs to a conserved peptide determinant of gp120. Vaccine. 21:1213–1218, 2003.
  71. Paul, S., Planque, S., Zhou, Y.-X., Taguchi, H., Bhatia, G., Karle, S., Hanson, C., and Nishiyama, Y. Specific HIV gp120 cleaving antibodies induced by covalently reactive analog of gp120. J Biol Chem. 278(22):20429-20435, 2003.
  72. Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Burr, G., Bhatia, G., Karle, S., Zhou, Y.-X., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Broadly distributed chemical reactivity of natural antibodies expressed in coordination with specific antigen binding activity. J Biol Chem. 278:20436-20443, 2003.
  73. Bhatia, G., Bangale, Y., Taguchi, H., Dannenbring, R., Karle, S., Paul, S., and Nishiyama, Y. An irreversible inhibitor of a VIP-hydrolyzing antibody. Proceedings of 18th American Peptide Symposium. Peptide Revolution: Genomics, Proteomics & Therapeutics, Boston, MA, 2003. Eds. Michael Chorev and Tomi K. Sawyer, pp. 961-962.
  74. Rangan, S.K., Liu, R., Brune, D., Planque, S., Paul, S., and Sierks, M.R. Degradation of β-amyloid by proteolytic antibody light chains. Biochemistry. 42:14328-14334, 2003.
  75. Paul, S. VIPase. In Handbook of proteolytic enzymes, Barrett A, Woessner F, Rawlings N., Eds. (Academic Press, London, England); 2nd edition, pp 2097-2099, 2004.
  76. Nishiyama, Y., Bhatia, G., Bangale, Y., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Karle, S., and Paul, S. Towards selective covalent inactivation of pathogenic antibodies: A phosphonate diester analog of vasoactive intestinal peptide that inactivates catalytic autoantibodies. J Biol Chem. 279:7877–7883, 2004.
  77. Karle, S., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Zhou, Y.-X., Salas, M., Lake, D., Thiagarajan, P., Arnett, F., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Cross-clade HIV-1 neutralization by an antibody fragment from a lupus phage display library. AIDS. 18(2):329–331, 2004.
  78. Planque, S., Bangale, Y., Song, X.-T., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Poindexter, B., Bick, R., Edmundson, A., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Ontogeny of proteolytic immunity: IgM serine proteases. J Biol Chem. 279: 14024-14032, 2004.
  79. Voice, J., Donnelly, S., Dorsam, G., Dolganov, G., Paul, S., and Goetzl, E.J. c-Maf and JunB mediation of Th2 differentiation induced by the type 2 G protein-coupled receptor (VPAC2) for vasoactive intestinal peptide. J Immunol. 172:7289-7296, 2004.
  80. Taguchi, H., Keck, Z., Foung, S.K.H., Paul, S., and Nishiyama, Y. Antibody light chain-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hepatitis C virus peptide. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 14:4529-4532, 2004.
  81. Paul, S., Karle, S., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Nishiyama, Y., Handy, B., Hunter, R., Edmundson, A., and Hanson, C. Naturally occurring proteolytic antibodies: Selective IgM-catalyzed hydrolysis of HIV gp120. J Biol Chem. 279(38):39611-39619, 2004.
  82. Paul, S., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Hanson, C., and Weksler, M.E. Antibodies as defensive enzymes. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 26:485-503, 2005.
  83. Nishiyama, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Hara, M., Karle, S., Hanson, C.V., Uda, T., and Paul, S. Broadly distributed nucleophilic reactivity of proteins coordinated with specific ligand binding activity. J Mol Recognit. 18:295-306, 2005.
  84. Hanson, C.V., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies and their applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 16:631-636, 2005.
  85. Paul, S., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., and Taguchi, H. Theory of proteolytic antibody occurrence. Immunol Lett. 103:8-16, 2006.
  86. Paul, S., and Planque, S. Antibody engineering. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. http://www.els.net. DOI: 10.1038/npg.els.0001278. 2006.
  87. Huang, M.C., Miller A.I., Wengang, W., Kong, Y., Paul, S., and Goetzl, E.J. Differential signaling of T cell generation of IL-4 by wild-type and short-deletion variant of type 2 G protein-coupled receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VPAC2). J Immunol. 176:6640-6646, 2006.
  88. Olopade, C., Yu, J., Abubaker, J., Mensah, E., and Paul, S. Catalytic hydrolysis of VIP in pregnant women with asthma. J Asthma. 43:429-432, 2006.
  89. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Towards irreversible HIV inactivation: stable gp120 binding by nucleophilic antibodies. J Mol Recognit. 19(5):423-431, 2006.
  90. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., and Paul, S. Antibodies to the superantigenic site of HIV-1 gp120: Hydrolytic and binding activities of the light chain subunit. Mol Immunol. 44(10):2707-2718, 2007.
  91. Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Hara, M., Kyle, R., Taguchi, H., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Naturally occurring catalytic antibodies: Evidence for preferred development of the catalytic function in IgA class antibodies. Mol Biotechnol. 36:113-122, 2007.
  92. Nishiyama, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Towards covalent vaccination: Improved polyclonal HIV neutralizing antibody response induced by an electrophilic gp120 V3 peptide analog. J Biol Chem. 282(43):31250-31256, 2007.
  93. Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Morris, M.-K., Nishiyama, Y., Kyle, R., Okhuysen, P., Escobar, M., Hunter, R., Sheppard, H.W., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Characterization of gp120 hydrolysis by IgA antibodies from humans without HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 23(12):1541-1553, 2007.
  94. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Symersky, J., Boivin, S., Szabo, P., Friedland, R.P., Ramsland, P.A., Edmundson, A.B., Weksler, M.E., and Paul, S. Autoantibody catalyzed hydrolysis of amyloid β peptide. J Biol Chem. 283(8):4714-4722, 2008.
  95. Planque, S., Escobar, M.A., Smith, K.C., Taguchi, H., Nishiyama, Y., Donnachie, E., Pratt, K.P., and Paul, S. Covalent inactivation of Factor VIII antibodies from hemophilia A patients by an electrophilic FVIII analog. J Biol Chem. 283(18):11876-11886, 2008. PMCID:PMC2335366.
  96. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Szabo, P., Weksler, M.E., Friedland, R.P., and Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies to amyloid β peptide in defense against Alzheimer disease. Autoimmun Rev. 7(5):391-397, 2008. PMCID:PMC2430036.
  97. Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies to HIV: physiological role and potential clinical utility. Autoimmun Rev. 7(6):473-479, 2008. PMCID:PMC2527403.
  98. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Sapparapu, G., Boivin, S., Hara, M., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Exceptional amyloid β peptide hydrolyzing activity of non-physiological immunoglobulin variable domain scaffolds. J Biol Chem. 283(52):36724-36733, 2008. PMCID:PMC2606003.
  99. Paul, S., Planque, S.A., Nishiyama, Y., and Hanson, C.V. A covalent HIV vaccine: is there hope for the future? Future Virol. (Editorial) 4(1):7-10, 2009. PMCID:PMC2842995.
  100. Sapparapu, G., Planque, S.A., Nishiyama, Y., Foung, S.K., and Paul, S. Antigen-specific proteolysis by hybrid antibodies containing promiscuous proteolytic light chains paired with an antigen-binding heavy chain. J Biol Chem. 284(36):24622-24633, 2009. PMCID:PMC2782051.
  101. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Nitti, G., Taguchi, H., Jin, L., Symersky, J., Boivin, S., Sienczyk, M., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Towards effective HIV vaccination: induction of binary epitope reactive antibodies with broad HIV neutralizing activity. J Biol Chem. 284(44):30627-30642, 2009. PMCID:PMC2781617.
  102. Paul, S., Planque, S., and Nishiyama, Y. Immunological origin and functional properties of catalytic autoantibodies to amyloid beta peptide. J Clin Immunol. 30 Suppl 1:S43-S49, 2010. PMCID:PMC3147076.
  103. Planque, S., Salas, M., Mitsuda, Y., Sienczyk, M., Escobar, M.A., Mooney, J.P., Morris, M.K., Nishiyama, Y., Ghosh, D., Kumar, A., Gao, F., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Neutralization of genetically diverse HIV-1 strains by IgA antibodies to the gp120-CD4-binding site from long-term survivors of HIV infection. AIDS. 24(6):875-884, 2010. PMCID:PMC2881561. Erratum in AIDS. 2011 Jun 19;25(10):1345-1346.
  104. Paul, S., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Escobar, M., and Hanson, C. Back to the future: covalent epitope-based HIV vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 9(9):1027-1043, 2010. PMCID:PMC3043596.
  105. Paul, S. Two-faced catalytic autoantibodies (Commentary). Blood. 117(7):2084-2086, 2011. PMID:21330481.
  106. Paul, S., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Escobar, M., Barnett, Z., and Massey, R.J. Covalent vaccination and catalytic antibodies: A new way of looking at and dealing with HIV. GMHC “Treatment Issues.” June 2011. http://www.gmhc.org/files/editor/file/r_ti_0511.pdf. Print version published in POZ magazine, June 2011:21-25.
  107. Kou, J., Kim, H., Pattanayak, A., Song, M., Lim, J.E., Taguchi, H., Paul, S., Cirrito, J.R., Ponnazhagan, S., and Fukuchi, K. Anti-amyloid-β single-chain antibody brain delivery via AAV reduces amyloid load but may increase cerebral hemorrhages in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. J Alzheimers Dis. 27(1):23-38, 2011. PMCID:PMC3560395.
  108. Paul, S., Planque, S.A., Nishiyama, Y., Hanson, C.V., and Massey, R.J. Nature and nurture of catalytic antibodies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 750:56-75, 2012. PMID:22903666.
  109. Brown, E.L., Nishiyama, Y., Dunkle, J.W., Aggarwal, S., Planque, S., Watanabe, K., Csencsits-Smith, K., Bowden, M.G., Kaplan, S.L., and Paul, S. Constitutive production of catalytic antibodies to a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor and effect of infection. J Biol Chem. 287(13):9940-9951, 2012. PMCID:PMC3323049.
  110. Sapparapu, G., Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., McLean, G., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Constant domain-regulated antibody catalysis. J Biol Chem. 287(43):36096-36104, 2012. PMCID:PMC3476277.
  111. Planque, S.A., Mitsuda, Y., Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Boivin, S., Salas, M., Morris, M.K., Hara, M., Liao, G., Massey, R.J., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Antibodies to a superantigenic glycoprotein 120 epitope as the basis for developing a HIV vaccine. J Immunol. 189(11):5367-5381, 2012. PMCID:PMC3755593.
  112. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S.A., Hanson, C.V., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. CD4 binding determinant mimicry for HIV vaccine design. Front. Immun. 3:383, 2012. (Invited article). PMCID:PMC3523313.
  113. Yang, J., Pattanayak, A., Song, M., Kou, J., Taguchi, H., Paul, S., Ponnazhagan, S., Lalonde, R., and Fukuchi, KI. Muscle-directed anti-Aβ single-chain antibody delivery via AAV1 reduces cerebral Aβ load in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. J Mol Neurosci. 49(2):277-88, 2013. PMCID:PMC3545079.
  114. Nishiyama, Y. and Paul, S. VIPase: antibody light chain hydrolyzing vasoactive intestinal peptide. In Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, Rawlings, N.D. and Salvesen, G.S. Eds. (Oxford Academic Press, England); pp. 3739-3744, 2013.
  115. Planque, S.A., Mitsuda, Y., Chitsazzadeh, V., Gorantla, S., Poluektova, L., Nishiyama, Y., Ochsenbauer, C., Morris, M. K., Sapparapu, G., Hanson, C. V., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. (2014) Deficient synthesis of class-switched, HIV neutralizing antibodies to the CD4 binding site and correction by electrophilic gp120 immunogen. AIDS. 28(15):2201-11, 2014. PMCID: PMC4573643.
  116. Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Hara, M., Planque, S.A., Mitsuda, Y., Paul S. Metal-dependent amyloid β-degrading catalytic antibody construct. J Biotechnol. 180:17-22, 2014. PMCID:PMC4512298.
  117. Planque, S.A, Nishiyama, Y., Hara, M., Sonoda S., Murphy, S.K., Watanabe, K., Mitsuda, Y., Brown, E.L., Massey, R.J., Primmer, S.R., O’Nuallain, B. and Paul, S. Physiological IgM class catalytic antibodies selective for transthyretin amyloid.  J Biol Chem. 289(19):13243-58, 2014. PMCID: PMC4036335.
  118. Kou, J., Yang, J., Lim, J.E., Pattanayak, A., Song, M., Planque, S., Paul, S. and Fukuchi, K.I. Catalytic immunoglobulin gene delivery in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease: Prophylactic and therapeutic applications. Mol Neurobiol. 51(1):43-56, 2015. PMCID:PMC4198531
  119. Planque, S.A., Nishiyama, Y., Sonoda, S., Lin, Y., Taguchi, H., Hara, M., Kolodziej, S., Mitsuda, Y., Gonzalez, V., Sait, H.B., Fukuchi, K., Massey, R.J., Friedland, R.P., O’Nuallain, B., Sigurdsson, E.M., Paul, S. Specific amyloid β clearance by a catalytic antibody construct. J Biol Chem. 290(16):10229-41, 2015. PMCID: PMC4400338.
  120. Paul, S., Planque, S., Massey, R.J. Antibody Engineering. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. 2015. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001278.pub3.
  121. Meretoja, V., Paul, S., Planque, S. Hydrolysis and dissolution amyloids by catabodies. Natural Antibodies. Eds., Kaveri S.V. and Bayry, J. (Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 1643:24.

Books and Conference Proceedings

  1. Paul, S. (Ed.) Chemical Immunology: Catalytic Antibodies. (S. Karger AG, Basel) pp. 1-161, 2000.
  2. Paul, S., Tramontano, A., Sarma, U., Thomas, D., and Gabibov, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 83:1-318, 2000.
  3. Paul, S., Ed. Autoimmune Reactions. (Humana Press, Totowa, NJ) pp. 1-438, 1999.
  4. Paul, S., Friboulet, A., Gabibov, S., and Thomas, D., Eds. Whither Catalytic Antibodies? Proceedings of 2nd International symposium on Catalytic Antibodies and Antibody Engineering. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 75:1-150, 1998.
  5. Paul, S., Ed. Antibody Engineering Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. (Humana Press, Totowa, NJ). 51:1-450, 1995.
  6. Paul, S., Gabibov, A., and Massey, R. (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Catalytic Antibodies and Catalytic Engineering. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. (Humana Press, Totowa, NJ) 47:107-410, 1994.

Oral and poster presentations

  1. Paul, S. Catalytic VIP hydrolysis by an autoantibody. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Immunological Recognition, May 30-June 7, New York, New York, 1989.
  2. Paul, S. Catalytic VIP autoabzymes: A new effector mechanism for autoantibodies. VIIth World Congress of Immunology, July 30-August 5, Berlin, West Germany, 1989.
  3. Paul, S., and Massey, R.J. Catalytic hydrolysis of vasoactive intestinal peptide by human autoantibody. 4th International Congress of VIP and Related Peptides, September 21-23, Stockholm, Sweden. Regul Peptides 26:175, 1989.
  4. Paul, S. Catalytic VIP antibodies. Abstracts of American Microbiology Society Conference on Biotechnology, July 10-12, Chicago, 1990.
  5. Paul, S. Binding sites and multiple hydrolytic sites in epitopes recognized by catalytic antibodies. Abstracts of CIBA Foundation Symposium on Catalytic Antibodies, October 1-3, London, 1990.
  6. Mody, R., and Paul, S. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) degradation. 1991.
  7. Eklund, S.H., and Paul, S. A screening assay for catalysis by monoclonal antibodies. 1991 ASPET Meeting, August 6-10, San Diego. Pharmacologist 33:145, 1991.
  8. Sun, M., Mody, B., Eklund, S.H., and Paul, S. VIP hydrolysis by antibody light chains. 1991 ASPET Meeting, August 6-10, San Diego. Pharmacologist 33:238, 1991.
  9. Johnson, D., Eklund, E., and Paul, S. Human cell lines secreting catalytic VIP antibodies. FASEB J 5:550, 1991.
  10. Paul, S., Eklund, S.H., Sun, M., Mody, R., Gao, Q.-S., Massey, R.J., and Tramontano, A. Hydrolytic activity and primary structure of a monoclonal antibody to the ground state of VIP. 5th International Symposium on VIP and Related Peptides, November 12-15, Shizuoka, Japan. Biomed Res 12:4, 1991.
  11. Mody, R., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Primary structure of an antibody to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). 20th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference, November 23-25, Chicago, IL, 1991.
  12. Gao, Q.-S., Mody, R., and Paul, S. Molecular cloning of a monoclonal peptidolytic anti-VIP antibody. FASEB Annual Meeting, April 5-9, Anaheim, CA. FASEB J 6:4596, 1992.
  13. Sun, M., and Paul, S. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding by pure antibody light chains. FASEB Annual Meeting, April 5-9, Anaheim, CA. FASEB J 6:1647, 1992.
  14. Mody, R., and Paul, S. Autolysis of a neuropeptide in neutral aqueous solution. Ninth International ICOP Conference on Proteolysis and Protein Turnover, October 18-23, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1992.
  15. Xian, W., Braunlin, W.H., and Paul, S. Functional and conformational studies of vasoactive intestinal peptide. Biophysics Society, March 7, New Orleans, 1994.
  16. Li, L., and Paul, S. Low-level, spontaneous formation of peptidolytic antibody fragments. FASEB Annual Meeting, April 24-28, Anaheim, California. FASEB J 8:1369, 1994.
  17. Paul, S., Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., and Landers, D. Catalytic antibodies to VIP. Association of University Anesthesiologists 41st Annual Meeting, May 5-8, Chicago, Illinois, 1994.
  18. Tyutyulkova, S., and Paul, S. Catalytic autoantibody light chain selected by phage display. 12th European Immunology Meeting, June 14-17, Barcelona, Spain, 1994.
  19. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., Tyutyulkova, S., Webster, D., Rees, A., Tramontano, A., Massey, R., and Paul, S. Substrate-driven formation of a proteolytic antibody light chain. New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Immunoglobulin Gene Expression in Development and Disease, July 13-17, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1994.
  20. Sun, M., Li, L., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Localization of protease activity in antibody subunits. New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Immunoglobulin Gene Expression in Development and Disease, July 13-17, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1994.
  21. Li, L., Kaveri, S., Tyutyulkova, S., Kazatchkine, M., and Paul, S. Catalytic activity of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Immunoglobulin Gene Expression in Development and Disease, July 13-17, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1994.
  22. Paul, S., Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., Tyutyulkova, S., Webster, D., Rees, A., Tramontano, A., and Massey, R. Substrate-driven formation of a proteolytic antibody light chain. 16th International Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, September 19-22, New Delhi, India, 1994.
  23. Paul, S., Li, L., Wilkins-Stevens, P., Stevens, F.J., and Solomon, A. Natural catalytic antibodies: Peptide hydrolyzing activities of monoclonal human light chains and VL fragment. ASBMB/DBC-ACS Joint Meeting, May 21-25, San Francisco, CA. FASEB J 9:A1265, 1995.
  24. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., and Paul, S. Evolution of catalytic activity in antibody light chain in response to substrate. ASBMB/DBC-ACS Joint Meeting, May 21-25, San Francisco, CA. FASEB J 9:A1266, 1995.
  25. Paul, S., Gao, Q.-S., Huang, H., Sun, M., Thompson, A., Rennard, S., and Landers, D. Catalytic autoantibodies to vasoactive intestinal peptide. Thomas L. Petty Aspen Lung Conference, 37th Annual Meeting, June 8-11, Aspen, Colorado. Chest 107:125S-126S, 1995.
  26. Tyutyulkova, S., Huang, H., Gao, Q.-S., and Paul, S. Proteolytic activity of immunoglobulin light chains selected by phage display from an asthma patient. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 228, abstract #1349, 1995.
  27. Paul, S., Li, L., O’Dell, J., and Kalaga, R. Natural catalytic antibodies: Ubiquitous constituents of polyclonal IgG and decreased levels in rheumatoid arthritis. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 625, abstract #3707, 1995.
  28. Kalaga, R., Huang, H., Stevens, F.J., Solomon, A., and Paul, S. gp120 hydrolysis by catalytic antibody light chain. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 825, abstract #4893, 1995.
  29. Gao, Q.-S., Sun, M., and Paul, S. Evolution of catalytic activity in antibody light chain in response to substrate. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 228, abstract #1352, 1995.
  30. Huang, H., Li, L., and Paul, S. Catalytic antibody light chain repertoire. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 228, abstract #1353, 1995.
  31. Li, L., Wilkins-Stevens, P., Stevens, F.J., Solomon, A., and Paul, S. Catalytic activity of monoclonal human light chains and VL fragment. The 9th International Congress of Immunology, July 23-29, San Francisco, CA. Pg 505, abstract #2993, 1995.
  32. Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies: origin of activity and methods of isolation. Conference on Interesting Antibody Activities, December 6-7, Nebraska City, Nebraska, 1996.
  33. Ikezaki, H., Paul, S., Alkan-Onyuksel, H., Patel, M., Gao, X.-P., and Rubenstein, I. Vasodilation elicited by vasoactive intestinal peptide in sterically stabilized liposomes is unimpeded by anti-VIP antibody in vivo. American Thoracic Society, April 24-27, Chicago, Illinois. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 157:A381, 1998.
  34. Gololobov, G., Sun, M., Rees, A., and Paul, S. Peptide-methylcoumarinamide cleavage by germline encoded catalytic antibody light chain. 1998 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and ASBMB Satellite Meetings, May 16-20, Washington, DC. FASEB J. 12:A21, 1998.
  35. Kaveri, S.V., Li, L., Kazatchkine, M.D., and Paul, S. The boundary between natural disease associated autoantibodies: Contribution of catalytic autoantibodies. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 34, 1998.
  36. Nedonchelle, E., Pitiot, O., Darnige, L., Paul, S., and Vijayalakshmi, M.A. Isolation of catalytic antibodies by 1-histidine binding. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 30, 1998.
  37. Tramontano, A., Ivanov, B., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Phosphonate esters for inhibition, detection and labeling of hydrolytic enzymes and abzymes. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 29, 1998.
  38. Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Mechanistic comparison of an antibody serine protease with its enzyme counterpart. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 28, 1998.
  39. Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. Proteolytic and antibodies in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 23, 1998.
  40. Kohler, H., and Paul, S. Superantibodies – Happy marriage between the innate and the adaptive immune system. Satellite conference on Catalytic and Super Antibodies, October 29-November 1, New Delhi, India. Abstracts booklet, page 6, 1998.
  41. Tramontano, A., Ivanov, B., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Phosphonate esters for inhibition, detection and labeling of hydrolytic enzymes and abzymes. Workshop on Catalytic Antibodies: Immunological and Designer Aspects, November 2, in conjunction with the 10th International Congress of Immunology, November 1-6, New Delhi, India. The Immunologist. Supplement 1:119, 1998.
  42. Kohler, H., and Paul, S. Superantibodies – Happy marriage between the innate and the adaptive immune system. Workshop on Catalytic Antibodies: Immunological and Designer Aspects, November 2, in conjunction with the 10th International Congress of Immunology, November 1-6, New Delhi, India. The Immunologist. Supplement 1:624, 1998.
  43. Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Mechanistic comparison of an antibody serine protease with its enzyme counterpart. Workshop on Catalytic Antibodies: Immunological and Designer Aspects, November 2, in conjunction with the 10th International Congress of Immunology, November 1-6, New Delhi, India. The Immunologist. Supplement 1:120, 1998.
  44. Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. Proteolytic and antibodies in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Workshop on Catalytic Antibodies: Immunological and Designer Aspects, November 2, in conjunction with the 10th International Congress of Immunology, November 1-6, New Delhi, India. The Immunologist. Supplement 1:119, 1998.
  45. Abubaker, J., Myles, T., Rubinstein, I., Paul, S., and Olopade, C.O. VIP hydrolysis is increased in the pregnant asthmatic. World Asthma Meeting, December 10-13, Barcelona, Spain. European Respiratory Journal 12:29S, 1998.
  46. Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. Proteolytic antibodies in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Proteolytic processing and physiological regulation. February 20-21, Irvine, California. National Academy of Sciences Colloquium, Abstracts booklet, page 41, 1999.
  47. Thiagarajan, P., Dannenbring, R., Matsuura, K., and Paul, S. Prothrombin-cleaving autoantibodies inpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Supplement of 2nd International Congress on Autoimmunity, March 7-12, Tel Aviv, Israel. J Autoimmunity, 12:46, 1999.
  48. Paul, S. Immunological origin and functional implications of proteolytic autoantibodies. Supplement of 2nd International Congress on Autoimmunity, March 7-12, Tel Aviv, Israel. J Autoimmunity, page 45, 1999.
  49. Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies for HIV immunotherapy. Abstract presented at the annual report of grantees. Special program named Innovative new therapy of presentation HL59746, August 24, 1999.
  50. Paul, S. Catalytic antibody oligonucleotide therapies. Biopartnering Europe conference, October 18-19, London, England, 1999.
  51. Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. Proteolytic immunity: Natural and designer routes to therapy and vaccination. Presented at Hiroshima Prefectural University as a mini-symposium, November 16, Hiroshima, Japan. Abstracts booklet, page 12-13, 1999.
  52. Thiagarajan, P., Dannenbring, R., Matsuura, K., Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Prothrombinase antibody light chain. 17th Annual Texas Regional Immunology Conference, November 19-21, Galveston, TX, 1999.
  53. Planque, S., Matsuura, K., Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. A superactive state of a proteolytic antibody light chain. 17th Annual Texas Regional Immunology Conference, November 19-21, Galveston, TX, 1999.
  54. Karle, S., Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., and Paul, S. Proteolytic antibody selection. 17th Annual Texas Regional Immunology Conference, November 19-21, Galveston, TX, 1999.
  55. Bangale, Y., Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. VIPASE autoantibodies in aged autoimmune mice. 17th Annual Texas Regional Immunology Conference, November 19-21, Galveston, TX, 1999.
  56. Planque, S., Matsuura, K., Paul, S., Gololobov, G., and Tramontano, A. A superactive state of a proteolytic antibody light chain. Advances in Immunology and Allergology on the threshold of the XXI century. May 3-6, Eilat, Israel. Int J Immunorehabil. 2:92, 2000.
  57. Gololobov, G., Planque, S., Miranda, M., Karle, S., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Nucleophilic selection of gp120 specific proteolytic antibodies from lupus autoantibody library. Advances in Immunology and Allergology on the threshold of the XXI century. May 3-6, Eilat, Israel. Int J Immunorehabil. 2:92, 2000.
  58. Paul, S. Catalytic immunity: Natural and designer routes to therapy and vaccination. Advances in Immunology and Allergology on the threshold of the XXI century. May 3-6, Eilat, Israel. Int J Immunorehabil. 2:90, 2000.
  59. Abu-Hassan, M., Paul, S., Epstein, C.E., Shardonofsky, F., Elidemir, O., and Colasurdo, G. Catalytic anti-VIP antibody produces airway dysfunction in a murine model in vivo. 2000 American Lung Association/American Thoracic Society International Conference, May 5-10, Ontario, Canada. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 161: A434, 2000.
  60. Berisha, H., Bratut, M., Paul, S., Colasurdo, G., Gololobov, G., and Said, S. VIP as the principal transmitter of neurogenic airway relaxation: New evidence from the use of a catalytic monoclonal antibody. May 18-23, 2000, San Francisco, California. American Thoracic Society, International Conference.
  61. Paul, S. Catalytic antibody vaccines. September 25, 2000. Frontiers in Vaccinology Symposium, All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
  62. Gololobov, G., Colasurdo, G., Bangale, Y., Planque, S., Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Tramontano, A., Luo, J., Dannenbring, R., and Paul, S. Genesis and applications of catalytic autoimmunity. November 8, 2000, Japan. Hiroshima Prefectural University, 2nd International Mini-Symposium on Catalytic Antibody Engineering.
  63. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Zhou, Y., Planque, S., Burr, G., Luo, J., Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., Taguchi, H., and Paul, S., Isolation of anti-HIV catalytic antibodies using covalently reactive antigen analogs. November 8, 2000, Japan. Hiroshima Prefectural University, 2nd International Mini-Symposium on Catalytic Antibody Engineering.
  64. Gololobov, G., Tramontano, A., Zhou, Y., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., George, S., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Phosphonate ester probes for identification and isolation of antibody serine proteases. FASEB Annual Meeting, March 31-April 4, 2001, Orlando, Florida, The FASEB Journal. FASEB J. 15:A533.
  65. Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Zhou, Y., Luo, J., Dannenbring, R., Tramontano, A., and Paul, S. Unexpected covalent reactivity of a phosphonate monoester with trypsin and a catalytic antibody. FASEB Annual Meeting, March 31-April 4, 2001, Orlando, Florida. FASEB J. 15:A538.
  66. Karle, S., Luo, J., Nishiyama, Y., Tramontano, A., Gololobov, G., Bangale, Y., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Characterization of antibodies elicited by a conserved gp120 peptide. FASEB Annual Meeting, March 31-April 4, 2001, Orlando, Florida. FASEB J. 15: A1189.
  67. Luo, J., Karle, S., Gololobov, G., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Burr, G., Thiagarajan, P., Tramontano, A., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Binding, catalytic and HIV-neutralizing activities of recombinant human antibody fragments reactive with a conserved, CD4-binding component of gp120. FASEB Annual Meeting, March 31-April 4, 2001, Orlando, Florida. FASEB J. 15: A1007.
  68. Paul, S., Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Luo, J., Taguchi, H., Hanson, C., Tramontano, A., and Burr, G. gp120ase antibodies. XIth Symposium on HIV Infection. June 14-16, 2001, Toulon, France. O.P.2.6.
  69. Luo, J., Karle, S., Burr, G., Tramontano, A., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., George, S., and Paul, S. Selection and elicitation of gp120 specific catalytic antibodies. September 26-27, 2001, Bethesda, Maryland. NIH Annual Grantees Conference. (RFA-HL-97-002).
  70. Nesbit, L. A., Lake, D. F., Planque, S., Karle, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Enhanced HIV-1 reactivity of phage-displayed single chain Fv. Keystone Symposium XI “HIV Vaccine Development: Immunological and Biological Challenges”, March 29-April 4, 2003, Banff, Albert, Canada.
  71. Karle, S., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Taguchi, H., Zhou, Y.-X., Salas, M., Lake, D., Thiagarajan, P., Arnett, F., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Reversibly-binding and catalytic HIV neutralizing antibody fragments to a conserved envelope determinant from lupus antibody repertoires. Keystone Symposium XI “HIV Vaccine Development: Immunological and Biological Challenges”, March 29-April 4, 2003, Banff, Albert, Canada.
  72. Paul, S., Planque, S., Zhou, Y.-X., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Bhatia, G., Nishiyama, Y., Salas, M., and Hanson, C. Specific gp120ase antibodies induced by covalent immunization. International AIDS Society 2nd Conference on Pathogenesis and Treatment, July 13-16, 2003, Paris, France.
  73. Bhatia, G., Bangale, Y., Taguchi, H., Dannenbring, R., Karle, S., Paul, S., and Nishiyama, Y. An irreversible inhibitor of a VIP-hydrolyzing antibody. 18th American Peptide Symposium, Boston, MA, July 19–23, 2003. Abstract published in Biopolymers 71:401–402, 2003.
  74. Paul, S., and Nishiyama, Y. Engineering natural nucleophilic antibodies. 59th Southwest Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Oklahoma city, Oklahoma, Oct 26–28, 2003, p. 122.
  75. Karle, S., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Nishiyama, Y., Hunter, R., Edmundson, A., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Selective IgM-catalyzed hydrolysis of gp120: An innate defense against HIV? XV International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, July 11-16, 2004, Abstract number: TuPpA2031.
  76. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Sierks, M., Psabo, P., Weklser, M., and Paul, S. Catalytic hydrolysis of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) by human antibodies. 9th International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders. July 17-22, 2004, Philadelphia, PA, P4-331.
  77. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Szabo, P., Barr, B., Edmundson, A., Weksler, M., and Paul, S. IgM defense enzymes directed to amyloid β peptide. 9th International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders. July 17-22, 2004, Philadelphia, PA, P3-418.
  78. Planque, S., Escobar, M., Taguchi, H., Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Donnachie, E., and Paul, S. Irreversible blockade of factor VIII antibodies. The American Society of Hematology, 46th annual meeting. December 4-7, 2004, San Diego, CA. Blood. 1:479a.
  79. Planque, S., Hanson, C.V., Salas, M. Taguchi, H., Bangale, Y., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Innate superantibodies to HIV gp120. 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 24-27, 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  80. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., and Paul, S. Irreversible HIV gp120 targeting by antibodies. 3rd IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 24-27, 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  81. Planque, S., Hanson, C.V., Salas, M., Taguchi, H., Bangale, Y., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Innate superantibodies to HIV gp120. 4th General Meeting of the International Proteolysis Society, Associated with the International Conference on Protease Inhibitors. October 15-19, 2005, Quebec City, Canada Abstract Number 307.
  82. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Mitsuda, Y., Salas, M. Hanson, C.V., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., and Paul, S. Irreversible HIV gp120 targeting by antibodies. 4th General Meeting of the International Proteolysis Society, Associated with the International Conference on Protease Inhibitors. October 15-19, 2005, Quebec City, Canada. Abstract Number 306.
  83. Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Hara, M., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Hanson, C., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Towards site-directed covalent vaccination: HIV neutralization by antibodies to an electrophilic gp120 V3 peptide. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biotechnology, Japan. September 11-13, 2006, Osaka, Japan.
  84. Paul, S., Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Mitsuda, Y., and Smith, K. Designer and natural antibody catalysis. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biotechnology, Japan. September 11-13, 2006, Osaka, Japan.
  85. Nishiyama, Y., Karle, S., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Towards irreversible HIV inactivation: Stable gp120 binding by nucleophilic antibodies. Center for AIDS Research Retreat, December 2, 2006, Houston, TX.
  86. Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Morris, M.-K., Nishiyama, Y., Kyle, R., Okhuysen, P., Escobar, M. Hunter, R., Sheppard, H.W., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Naturally occurring catalytic IgAs: Protective anti-HIV mediators? Center for AIDS Research Retreat, December 2, 2006, Houston, TX.
  87. Lei, J., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Nishiyama, Y., Prasad, B.V.V., and Paul, S. 2.3Å Fab structure of an HIV gp120-cleaving and dual-epitope reactive antibody. Center for AIDS Research Retreat, December 2, 2006, Houston, TX.
  88. Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Hara, M., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Hanson, C., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Towards site-directed covalent vaccination: HIV neutralization by antibodies to an electrophilic gp120 V3 peptide. Center for AIDS Research Retreat, December 2, 2006, Houston, TX.
  89. Sapparapu, G., Planque, S., Wang, R., Nishiyama, Y., Keck, Z., Foung, S., and Paul, S. Directing the natural catalytic activity of antibodies to hepatitis C virus E2 protein. Immunology 2007; 94th Annual Meeting. The American Association of Immunologists, May 18-22, 2007; Miami, FL, Abstract 1072.
  90. Nishiyama, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Hara, M., Taguchi, H., Salas, M. Hanson, C., and Paul, S. Towards site-directed covalent vaccination: HIV neutralization by antibodies to an electrophilic gp120 V3 peptide. Immunology 2007; 94th Annual Meeting. The American Association of Immunologists, May 18-22, 2007; Miami, FL. Abstract 1267.
  91. Planque, S., Peng, X., Karle, S., Nishiyama, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Smith, K.C., Salas, M., Hanson, C., Sheppard, H.W., and Paul, S. Adaptive development of catalytic antibodies to the gp120 superantigenic site in lupus and HIV infected patients. Immunology 2007; 94th Annual Meeting. The American Association of Immunologists, May 18-22, 2007; Miami, FL. Abstract 1313 published in J Immunol 178:44.43; Apr 2007.
  92. Brown, E., Smith, K.C., Duncan, K., and Paul, S. Catalytic antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus. Immunology 2007; 94th Annual Meeting. The American Association of Immunologists, May 18-22, 2007; Miami, FL. Abstract 1003. Published in J Immunol 178:43.41; Apr 2007.
  93. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Jin, L., Boivin, S., Salas, M., Hanson, C., and Paul, S. A binary neutralizing determinant of gp120 defined by Nucleophilic monoclonal antibodies. 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2007), July 22-25, 2007; Sydney, Australia.
  94. Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Sapparapu, G., Nishiyama, Y., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., Sheppard H.W., and Paul S. Catalytic IVIG? International Workshop on Naturally Occurring Antibodies in Health and Disease, October 19-20, 2007; Bern, Switzerland.
  95. Paul, S. Innate and adaptive catalytic immunity. International Workshop on Naturally Occurring Antibodies in Health and Disease, October 19-20, 2007; Bern, Switzerland.
  96. Sapparapu, G., Planque, S., Taguchi, H., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Sterically hindered HIV neutralization by IgG antibodies to the gp120 CD4 binding site: Improved neutralizing activity of antibody single chain Fv fragments. Keystone Symposium on Viral Immunity, January 20-25, 2008; Keystone, Colorado.
  97. Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Salas, M., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. A CD4 binding region of HIV gp120 targeted by innate and adaptively improved catalytic antibodies. Keystone Symposium on Viral Immunity, January 20-25, 2008; Keystone, Colorado.
  98. Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Szabo, P., Weksler, M.E., Friedland, R.P., and Paul, S. Increased catalytic autoantibodies to amyloid β peptide in Alzheimer disease. ICAD2008 International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease, July 26-31, 2008; Chicago. Abstract 2774.
  99. Paul, S., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Boivin, S. Sapparapu, G., Hara, M., and Nishiyama, Y. Exceptional catalytic hydrolysis of amyloid β peptide by immunoglobulin light chain variable domain constructs. ICAD2008 International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease, July 26-31, 2008; Chicago. Abstract 3100.
  100. Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Salas, M., Sapparapu, G., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Boivin, S., Nitti, G., Montefiori, D., Hanson, C.V. and Paul, S. Lupus antibody fragments to HIV gp120 superantigenic site. AIDS Vaccine 2008 Conference, October 13-16, 2008; Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract 139964.
  101. Planque, S., Salas, M., Escobar, M.A., Morris, M.-K., Jena, B., Mitsuda, Y., Nishiyama, Y., Sheppard, H.W., Kumar, A., Gao, F., Montefiori, D.C., Hanson, C.V. and Paul, S. Exceptionally potent, broadly-neutralizing IgAs from survivors of prolonged HIV infection. AIDS Vaccine 2008 Conference, October 13-16, 2008; Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract 139967.
  102. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Jena, B., Salas, M., Jin, L., Symersky, J., Boivin, S., Sienczyk, M., Taguchi, H., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Covalent gp120 immunization: Induction of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies but failure to enhance vaccine-relevant polyclonal antibody activity. AIDS Vaccine 2008 Conference, October 13-16, 2008; Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract 139913.
  103. Planque, S., Sienczyk, M., Nishiyama, Y., Salas, M., Sapparapu, G., Mitsuda, Y., Taguchi, H., Boivin, S., Nitti, G., Montefiori, D., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Prospective clinical utility and evolutionary implication of broadly neutralizing antibody fragments to HIV gp120 superantigenic epitope. XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008), August 3-8, 2008, México City, México. Abstract A-072-0043-16224.
  104. Planque, S., Salas, M., Escobar, M.E., Morris, M.-K., Jena, B., Mitsuda, Y., Sienczyk, M., Nishiyama, Y., Kumar, A., Gao, F., Montefiori, D.C., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Survivors of HIV infection produce potent, broadly neutralizing IgAs directed to the superantigenic region of the gp120 CD4 binding site. XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008), August 3-8, 2008, México City, México. Abstract A-072-0032-16213.
  105. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Ghosh, D., Hara, M., Nitti, G., Hanson, C., Escobar, M., Brown, E., and Paul, S. Catalytic IVIG? International Forum on Immunoglobulin Research, November 19-22, 2009, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
  106. Paul, S., Planque, S., and Nishiyama, Y. Natural and non-physiological antibodies for catalytic clearance of amyloid β peptide. International Forum on Immunoglobulin Research, November 19-22, 2009, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
  107. Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Ghosh, D., Nishiyama, Y., Hanson, C.V., and Paul. S. Correction of deficient class-switched antibody response to the CD4 binding site by covalent immunization. AIDS 2010 – XVIII International AIDS Conference, July 18-23, 2010, Vienna Austria.
  108. Planque, S., Mitsuda, Y., Ghosh, D., Nishiyama, Y., Hanson, C.V., and Paul, S. Prototype covalent HIV vaccine for inducing antibodies that neutralize genetically divergent virus strains. AIDS 2010 – XVIII International AIDS Conference, July 18-23, 2010, Vienna Austria.
  109. Nishiyama, Y., Sigurdsson, E.M., Taguchi, H., Hara, M., Planque, S., Rajamohamedsait, H.B., Friedland, R.P., and Paul, S. Candidate therapeutic antibody with specific ability to catalyze amyloid β degradation. ICAD2010 International Conference on Alzheimer’s disease, July 10-15, 2010, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  110. Paul, S., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Nishiyama, Y., Ghosh, D., Escobar, A.M., and Hanson, C.V. Revisiting the mostly‐conserved CD4 binding site core region as an HIV vaccine target. AIDS Vaccine 2010 Conference, September 28-October 1, 2010, Atlanta, Georgia.
  111. Mitsuda, Y., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Hanson, C.V., Hunter, R., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. Induction of neutralizing antibodies to the HIV CD4 binding site in macaques by covalent immunization. Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, October 25-28, 2011, Seattle, Washington.
  112. Paul, S., Nishiyama, Y., and Planque, S. Beneficial catalytic autoimmunity to amyloids amplified with age. The American Aging Association’s 41st Annual Meeting, May 31-June 4, 2012, Fort Worth, Texas.
  113. Nishiyama, Y., Brown, E.L., Planque, S., Hanson, C.V., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. Proteolytic antibodies to superantigenic substrates: Innate origin and adaptive down-regulation. The Proteolytic Enzymes & Their Inhibitors Gordon Research Conference, June 17-22, 2012, Lucca (Barga), Italy.
  114. Nishiyama, Y., Planque, S.A., Hara, M., Watanabe, K., Xu, X., Taguchi, H., Sigurdsson, E.M., O’Nuallain, B., Murray, I.V., Friedland, R.P., Fukuchi, K., Massey, R.J., and Paul S. Beneficial catalytic autoimmunity to amyloid beta peptide. Alzheimer’s Association International Conference 2012 (AAIC), July 14-19, 2012, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (Presentation number P4-201).
  115. Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Mitsuda, Y., Taniguchi, R., Watanabe, K., Morris, M.K., Hanson, C.V., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. Broad HIV neutralization by constitutive antibodies and their amplification by covalent HIV vaccination. AIDS 2012 XIX International AIDS Conference, July 22-27, 2012, Washington D.C.
  116. Kou, J., Yang, J., Pattanayak, A., Song, M., Planque, S., Paul, S., and Fukuchi, K. AAV9-mediated anti-Aβ catalytic antibody brain delivery reduces amyloid load in an Alzheimer mouse model. Society for Neuroscience, October 13-17, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana.
  117. Nishiyama, Y., Hara, M., Watanabe, K., Planque, S.A., Taniguchi, R., Murray, I.V., Sigurdsson, E.M., O’Nuallain, B., Friedland, R.P., Massey, R.J., and Paul, S. Homeostatic proteolytic autoantibodies to amyloids in old age. Keystone Symposia, October 22-27, 2012, Tokyo, Japan.
  118. Planque, S.A., Taniguchi, R., Watanabe, K., Sigurdsson, E.M., Fukuchi, K., Massey, R.J., Nishiyama, Y., and Paul, S. Preclinical catalytic immunotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Keystone Symposia, October 22-27, 2012, Tokyo, Japan.
  119. Kou, J., Yang, J., Pattanayak, A., Song, M., Planque, S., Paul, S., Lalonde, R., and Fukuchi, K-I. Anti-Aβ catalytic antibody brain delivery via AAV9 effectively reduces brain amyloid deposition and inflammation in an Alzheimer mouse model. Alzheimer’s Association International Conference,  July 13-18, 2013, Boston, MA, USA.
  120. Planque, S.A., Nishiyama, Y., Sigurdsson, E.M., Fukuchi, K., Brown, E., Massey,  R.J., Paul, S. Preclinical catabody therapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Texas FreshAIR Academia Industry Roundtable, September 25-26, 2013, Austin, TX, USA
  121. Planque, S.A., Massey, R.J., Paul S. Next-Gen Catalytic and Irreversible Antibody Technology. Rejuvenation Biotechnology Conference (RB2015), August 19-21, 2015, San Francisco, California, USA
  122. Planque, S.A., Massey, R.J., Paul S. Next-Gen Catalytic and Irreversible Antibody Technology. Rejuvenation Biotechnology (RB2015), August 19-21, 2015, San Francisco, California, USA. Abstract#32. http://www.sens.org/files/conferences /rb2015/RB2015-Program.pdf.
  123. Paul, S., Planque, S.A., Massey, S.A., Electrophilic immunogens (E-immunogens) for amplifying broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV. 2015 Symposium on Vaccination against Antigenically Variable Viruses, November 5-8, 2015, Ames, Iowa.
  124. Paul, S., Planque, S.A., Massey, S.A., Next-Gen Catalytic and Irreversible Antibody Technology. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics 2015 Conference, San Diego, CA, December 07-10, 2015.
  125. Wareing, N., Paul, S., Planque, S.A. Proteolytic mechanism of transthyretin-specific catalytic antibodies. Summer Research Program Poster Presentation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, McGovern Medical School. October 24th, 2016, Houston, TX.

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